The Evolution of Information Architecture: From Logical and Conceptual Structures to Modern Designs

7 min read Optimal Workshop

In many ways, Information architecture (IA) is the backbone of a digital product or service. It is a conceptual structure for information, designed in a way that allows users to navigate and interact with it in a meaningful way. This is done by organizing, structuring, and labeling content that is intuitive for users. IA considers user needs and goals, as well as the relationships between different types of content, in order to create a user-centric design.

An effective IA design approach leads to better user experiences as it ensures that information is presented in a logical and intuitive way. Essentially, good IA attempts to reduce the chance of a clunky, frustrating user experience by organizing information in a way that makes sense for the target user. 

In this article, we’ll discuss the history of information architecture and how user research impacts its effectiveness. We’ll also discuss the roles of conceptual and structural design in user experience. And along the way, we’ll introduce Optimal Workshop’s IA tools, and how they can help you design exceptional IA.

The Beginning of Information Architecture

The world is full of information and humans have always had a knack for structuring and organizing it. Take libraries, for example. In ancient Egypt, workers in the Library of Alexandria created a catalog of 120 scrolls to order and describe the inventory. They needed to – estimates of the number of scrolls the library contained range between 40,000 and 400,000! Fast-forward to 1873, and Melvil Dewey came up with the Dewey Decimal System to further categorize and universalize much larger collections of books. Why come up with these solutions? To efficiently comb through, and navigate, masses of information.

As computer technology started to rise more prominently in the 1950s and 1960s, we started organizing computer programs and system designs in a way that made them easier to navigate too. In fact, IBM first mentioned the term architecture in a computational context in 1959 [ref]. When the wonderful ‘worldwide web’ was born in the 1990s, digital information began to be displayed and interacted with on a much larger scale. And, like our librarians, the world decided that online order was desperately needed. This is where the foundations of information architecture as we know it today really started to take shape.

In 1998, Peter Morville and Louis Rosenfeld wrote the book ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, which became Amazon’s best internet book that year. The authors integrated the ‘librarian’ approach to IA, where the main goal is to design a system where information is labeled for easy navigation and search. This focus on user-centric, logical design has become the backbone of user experience (UX) design today, and why Optimal Workshop’s Treejack tool, among other, exist for researching and designing great IA.

Organizational Structures

Information architecture is like the blueprint of your digital product – it’s a conceptual structure of how content is organized and arranged to create seamless interactions. But, no matter how much experience you have, or how much you trust your instincts, you will never truly get inside your end users’ minds without performing user research. They will be the ones to tell you what information is relevant to them, how to structure it, and even how to label and categorize it.

There are some best practices for organizing information. Start by ordering your content from most critical to least. Think like a web page. What will immediately engage a user, and what subsequent content will keep them engaged? This exercise helps to prioritize and order content. Next, think about how your information should be grouped or categorized. Content that is grouped intuitively helps users consume and navigate information on your website or digital product. Another useful exercise is to consider how different users might access your content. Mapping user journeys (often with entirely different users in mind), challenges how you design your organizational structures in a way that meets multiple users’ needs.

But, while those principles can get you started, user research is where designing modern, user-centric products really begins. In terms of information architecture and organizing content, card sorting is one of the most effective ways of designing conceptual structures. Card sorting, executed by Optimal Workshop’s OptimalSort tool, for example, involves asking people to arrange things like labels, articles, and products in a way that makes sense to them. People are different, and the benefit of this technique is that you can identify how information is most commonly organized. It also highlights potential ambiguity that you may need to address early on in the design of your IA.

Conceptual and Structural Design

The roles of conceptual and structural design in user experience are crucial in the development of effective information architecture and user experience (UX) design. Conceptual design involves the creation of a high-level, abstract representation of the overall structure of the information architecture, which helps designers to understand the content, functionality, and overall user experience. Generally, there are limited or no restrictions as to what shape the design can take. Structural design, on the other hand, involves the development of the actual information architecture, including the organization of content, navigation systems, and interaction design.

Effective conceptual and structural design can significantly improve user experience by creating a clear and consistent design language. This allows your target users to easily understand and navigate through content, leading to better engagement and satisfaction. Essentially, well-structured IA can increase the accessibility of content, making it easier for users to find the information they are looking for, regardless of their level of experience with the website or digital product.

Tools such as Optimal Workshop’s Chalkmark tool can help designers to test and validate their conceptual and structural design decisions by enabling them to create and analyze user interactions with information architecture. This helps designers identify areas of the structure that are confusing or difficult to navigate, which can then be streamlined to create a more intuitive user experience.

The Evolution of Information Architecture

As we discussed earlier, modern information architecture is no longer limited to physical implementation, like libraries, but instead extends to digital platforms and software applications. With the rise of the internet and mobile devices, IA has become a critical aspect of UX design. The focus has shifted from organizing information in a static, hierarchical manner to creating dynamic and interactive information environments that adapt to the needs of individual users.

One of the key changes in IA has been the shift towards a more user-centered design approach. This involves creating IA that is tailored to the needs and preferences of specific user groups, such as individuals with disabilities or users with different levels of technical expertise. This approach requires a deep understanding of user needs and behaviors, which is achieved through research and user testing. This research is increasingly done remotely and online using a suite of tools, like those provided by Optimal Workshop.

Optimal Workshop’s Reframer tool, for example, allows designers to collaborate and capture user insights and translate them into design solutions. This tool helps designers to identify patterns in user behavior and preferences, enabling them to create IA that is intuitive and easy to use.

As technology continues to evolve, IA is likely to become even more integral to UX design. With the emergence of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, designers will need to create IA that is capable of adapting to these new interfaces and provide solid structures that lead to seamless user experiences.


Information architecture is an essential aspect of user experience design that involves organizing, structuring, and labeling digital content in a way that makes it easy for users to find and understand. Great IA leads to better user experiences by presenting information in intuitive and logical designs. This is why information architecture is crucial for website design.

The history of IA as we know it today dates back to the 1950s and evolved with the rise of the internet. Now, we think of modern IA design as being user-centric, which involves in-depth research to understand users’ needs and goals. Optimal Workshop’s IA tools, such as Treejack, OptimalSort, and Chalkmark, can help designers create exceptional IA by testing and validating conceptual and structural designs. 

Well-structured information architecture can significantly improve the accessibility of content, which leads to better engagement and user satisfaction. This will become increasingly important as users interact with technology through new mediums, like virtual and augmented reality. So, remember to set solid foundations by investing in IA design when you start your next project!