Navigating the Complexities of Information Architecture vs Data Architecture
Thanks to an ever-growing digital world, businesses are spoiled for information and data. The more complex the business, the more information there is and the more complicated the business requirements are. But where there are challenges, there is opportunity. That’s where information architecture and data architecture come in.
Information and data architecture both seek to make sense of the plethora of information a business handles. However, the two have different roles to play in the way businesses use, move, maintain, and present data – both to internal and external stakeholders. So what are they and why should businesses take note?
Defining Information Architecture
Information architecture is the structure used to organize and label content on websites, mobile applications and other digital environments. Its primary purpose is to enhance user experience by ensuring information is structured in an accessible, usable and relevant way.
Information architecture seeks to understand user needs and goals by analyzing both existing and required information, then building an information framework in a logical and user-friendly way. It deals with three main components:
- Labels: How information is represented
- Navigation: How users make their way through the information
- Search: How users look for information
Whilst this information sits in the background, it’s the layer upon which you build the design of your digital products.
Information architects bring data from file systems and databases to life by building meaningful narratives and stories. Outputs can include site-mapping, information architecture diagrams and content inventories. These outputs are supported by user research techniques such as card sorting, tree testing, user surveys and first-click testing.
Defining Data Architecture
Data architecture bridges the gap between business needs, goals, and system requirements related to data handling. It sets out a framework for managing data assets, the flow of data and the maintenance of data systems. As such, it has a slightly more macro view than information architecture and concerns itself with emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and blockchain.
Where information architecture centers around the end-user interaction, data architecture centers around practical handling and operation of data processes i.e. collection through to transformation, distribution, and consumption. Because of this, data architecture must take into account the businesses ability to scale operations, integrate with third party systems, support real-time data processes and the reduction of operating costs. Modern data architecture may point to artificial intelligence to tackle some of these challenges.
The Importance of Enterprise Architects in Information and Data Architecture
Enterprise architects are big-picture people. Data architecture and information architecture both fall within their remit, and they often oversee other data management job specialities within an IT department.
As a leader (and often, visionary) within a business, enterprise architects shoulder the responsibility of ‘mission critical’ projects. As a result, they tend to have several years experience with IT systems, backed by a bachelor’s degree in computer science, IT management, data science or similar. Many will hold a master’s degree and specialty certifications.
The role involves collaborating with senior business leaders, solution-delivery teams and external stakeholders, and requires creative problem solving and excellent communication skills. Therefore, enterprise architects very much steer the ship when it comes to information and data architecture. Combining high-level business strategy with knowledge of ‘the nuts and bolts’ of IT data systems and processes, they command an annual salary in New Zealand between $150,000 and $200,000 per annum..
Continuous improvement within any business that has substantial IT infrastructure calls for serious investment in enterprise architecture.
Designing and Implementing an Effective Information and Data Architecture
Once overarching business goals are aligned with the scope of data and system requirements, information and data architecture design (or redesign) can begin.
Crucial to the design and implementation process is developing an architecture framework. This is a set of guidelines that lays out principles, practices, tools and approaches required to complete the design. It supports system design decisions, assigns key tasks and provides project guidance throughout the design process. The framework essentially aims to unite disparate teams and maintain business and IT alignment.
The choice of architecture design is also critical. It should consider scalability, performance, maintainability and adaptability to emerging technology. Which is why cloud platforms feature so heavily in modern data architecture. Cloud architects will navigate the architecture design and technical requirements of cloud-based delivery models, which offer the solution to those scalability and adaptability challenges. They are responsible for bridging the gaps between complex business problems and solutions in the cloud. Modern data architecture tends to involve some form of cloud delivery component.
Throughout implementation, data and information architects will work closely with designers and engineers until testable architecture is ready. User research and testing will be carried out, and a feedback loop will commence until requirements are met. Users, as always, should be at the center of your digital product.
Summing Up the Complexities of Information and Data Architecture
Whilst the difference between information and data architecture can appear nuanced on the surface, they hold unique roles when delivering a cohesive, user-friendly digital product.
Think of a sliding scale where business operations sit at one end, and users sit at the other. Data architecture addresses challenges closer to the business: aligning business requirements and goals with how data flows through the system. On the other hand, information architecture addresses the challenges related to how this data is organized and interpreted for the end user.
At the end of the day, both information and data architecture need to work in harmony to satisfy the user and the business.